Deductive Reasoning Test

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Deductive Reasoning Test

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9 tests 135 questions

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What is Deductive Reasoning?

The definition of Deductive Reasoning boils down to the capacity to make an il(logical) inference by drawing on “widely accepted premises and assumptions”. A simple example of Deductive Reasoning would be in the hypothetical situation where you walk into a friend’s kitchen and see a pan on the stove boiling over. You could deduce that the panhandles are hot and you should not pick the pan up with your bare hands. 

To further exemplify, by purely looking at the metal pan producing steam, it does not tell you that the pan is too hot. Although, by being observant that the pan is continuing to boil, it must be the case that the flame beneath the pan is burning. However, we have not discussed the material of the panhandles. If the panhandles are made from rubber the heat does not transfer and you can pick the pan up but if you see that the panhandles are from the same metal as the pan you probably should not. Through integrating all of the prior information, this line of hypothetical Deductive Reasoning could lead you to make a deductively valid argument.

Scientists use deduction in the scientific method to test hypotheses and theories. In a reasoning technique called deductive inference, a theory is held at the basis to “ infer” and make predictions of the consequences of the theory if it were to be correct. If this theory is not correct, the process starts over again and this cycle continues until the correct inference is made. Circling back to Deductive Reasoning, this thought process goes from general, to theory, to specific, to assessing the correctness of the observation and if the observation is false the line of Deductive Reasoning starts all over again. The faster, the more accurate, and logical, a person can do that, the better they are at Deductive Reasoning.

Unlike in the boiling pan example above, in Deductive Reasoning Assessment Tests that candidates will have to pass, the questions are multi-faceted and complex. It will require a lot of practice to master this style of reasoning as candidates have to draw the correct inference while being confronted with an information overload of statements and an abundance of questions that are time capped. However, we have untangled and organized the most common types of Deductive Reasoning Assessment questions that you will have to solve to land your dream job!

Assessment-Training has realistic and reliable Deductive Reasoning Test exercises that are developed by tenured psychologists who have also designed tests for large publishers such as Kenexa (IBM), CEB/Gartner (SHL), Thomas International, Saville Assessment, and Talent Q

Below we will unveil some of the most common types and examples of Deductive Reasoning you will be tested on during your assessment.

Types and Examples of Deductive Reasoning found in Assessment Tests

Syllogisms

In a Deductive Reasoning Assessment Test, one of the main question types that you will be presented with is syllogisms. A syllogism can be defined as a form of reasoning where a specific conclusion is reached by examining several ideas and premises. The word Syllogism originates from the Greek word “syllogismos”, meaning to infer. With syllogisms, common threads between ideas are presented to the candidates, which they should untangle to find out which threads lead to valid conclusions.

A common pitfall for candidates is that they make use of “reverse inference” which is a fallacy. Hypothetically assume that all cats are black. It does not mean that all black things are cats. Now that a simplistic version of syllogisms has been presented to you, let's delve into a more complex syllogism you can expect when taking a Deductive Reasoning Assessment Test.

Example

Statements

  • Some physics are chemistry
  • All chemistry is biology
  • All physics is mathematics

Conclusions:

    A. Some mathematics is biology

    B. No chemistry is biology

    C. Some chemistry is biology

    D. All mathematics is Physics

The correct answer is A.

Solution:

Conclusion A is valid since all physics is mathematics and then some math is chemistry of which all the matter is biology.

Conclusion B is invalid which is deduced by correctly identifying conclusion 1 as it opposes it.

Conclusion C is invalid because all chemistry is biology, not just some of it. 

Conclusion D is invalid because you can not make a reverse inference that because all mathematics is physics, all physics is mathematics.

If that was not enough, try our FREE Syllogism Practice Test with 10 questions and worked solutions! Click on the link or on the image below to open up a new tab.

syllogisms

 

Underlying assumptions

Another part of the Deductive Reasoning equation is the underlying assumption. In this type of question, you have to use deductive logic to figure out whether the assumptions being made in a given statement, paragraph, or chain of events are truths or falsehoods. As a candidate, you must quickly identify the correct underlying logical assumption while at the same time being able to discern which assumption is not entirely certain. Underlying assumptions can include some simple mathematical addition and subtraction. An example is provided with the cake bake-off race below:

Amanda, Barney, Charles, David, and Elisa competed in a cake bake-off race for their high school. Barney sold 11 cakes, Amanda sold fewer cakes than Barney and David sold more cakes than Barney. Charles was able to sell more cakes than David and Barney combined. Amanda and Elisa sold 20 cakes together. Which conclusion is known to be true?

    A. Elisa and Amanda sold the same amount of cakes.

    B. Barney sold more cakes than Elisa.

    C. Charles sold at least 3 cakes more than Amanda and Elisa combined.

    D. The combined number of cakes sold was at least 77.

    E.None of these statements is true.

The correct answer is C.

Solution: Barney sold 11 cakes, David sold more cakes than Barney so that is at least 12. Charles was able to sell more cakes than Barney and David together so Charles sold at least 23. As Amanda and Elisa sold 20 cakes together, Charles sold at least 3 more than them. Therefore answer C is correct.

Arrangements

Further examples of Deductive Reasoning used in assessment tests are arrangement-type questions. An arrangement type of question is where you can arrange a list of people, animals, objects, or items, in a specific order while adhering to a set of given rules about their positioning. Frequently observed arrangement questions are seating arrangements, race finishing arrangements, and time problem arrangements. Candidates are often bombarded with information which can lead to cognitive overload and mistakes. As Deductive Reasoning Assessment Tests are restricted by a time limit, solving the questions swiftly and accurately is crucial. You can become good at these types of questions, the key is familiarization and a lot of practice. An example of a race finishing arrangement is provided below.

Melony, Harmony, Sally, Brian, and Patricia went on a lunch break, forgot about the time, and were on the verge of being late for their next class. They decided to race to class and all ran separate routes which they believed to be the quickest. Melony came in second to last, and Brian beat melony and Sally but came in behind harmony, Patricia was not beaten by a boy but was by a girl. Who came in last? 

    A.Melony

    B.Harmony

    C.Patricia

    D.Brian

    E.Sally

The correct answer is E.

Solution: We know that Melony came in 4th so A is automatically false. Brian beat Melony and Sally to the chase so he must be in 3rd place at the least. Patricia beat Brian but lost to a girl, so she must be 2nd and now we know that Brian came in 3rd place. Recalling that Brian beat Sally, we can conclude that Sally came in last.

Now that we have shown you how to solve an arrangement example question, try your best at our no-strings-attached FREE Seating Arrangement Practice Test with 3 questions and worked solutions! Click the link or image below to open up a new tab and see how you rank against your peers!

seating arrangements

What is the difference between Logical Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning, and Deductive Reasoning?

Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning is the umbrella term for Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning. This type of thinking employs patterns of thinking to establish relationships between premises and ideas. The inter-relationships of the premises are tested through tenacious rigour to infer conclusions that are implied by the relations and premises. Logical Reasoning assesses the candidate's capacity to utilize structured thought processes to figure out an accurate response to a posed question. Within Logical Reasoning, there are two different and opposing systems that we utilize to validate logical argumentation. 

By clicking on the image below, you can start a Free Logical Reasoning Test session with 10 questions and solutions!

 

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning is the exact opposite of Deductive Reasoning and the term implies making broad generalizations from the available data. When employing inductive logic, essentially we make many observations and the observations are then investigated through trial-and-error. Eventually, by repeating the process, we may be able to discern which logical pattern can be generalized across the available data we are presented with to arrive at a correct explanation or theory. Inductive Reasoning is commonly typified asbottom-up logic because of its characteristic to widen out particular premises into broader sets of generalizations, just like the stem of a tree widening to form branches and leaves.

By clicking on the image below, you can take a Free Inductive Reasoning Test with 10 questions and solutions!

 

Deductive Reasoning

As previously mentioned in Deductive Reasoning, the universe of assumptions and premises is already laid out before you and should be taken as facts. Hence Deductive Reasoning can be categorized as top-down logic. In this case, the premises are the branches of a tree and the aim is to use top-down reasoning to find the stem of the tree.

Within the scientific community, there is a constant switching back and forth between drawing inductive inferences (based on anecdotal observations) and deductive inferences (based on the established theories) with the goal being, to approach and draw nearer to the esoteric and mystical ‘objective truth’. As a candidate for an assessment test, you will be confronted with the task to use Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning to solve a large variety of questions so you should better come prepared! 

Assessment-Training can help you unravel the complexity of this type of thinking in a structured way with our large assortment of questions and solutions. Together we can maximize your chances of acing that assessment test that is blocking your desired career path!

 

Tips and Tricks from Assessment-Training to ace the Deductive Reasoning Assessment Test

Specific Tips

  • Prepare a mental checklist of strategies to quickly determine which types of patterns can be found in the assessment. Is the question a syllogism? Is it an arrangement? Is it an underlying assumption? 
  • After categorizing the question type, figure out how to structure your thoughts and cut off the branches that don’t lead to the correct answer. When available use a pen and paper.
  • Don’t forget that with Deductive Reasoning, and in particular, syllogisms, one of the most common pitfalls is making a reverse inference”! Don’t automatically assume that because all planets revolve around the sun that the sun is stationary.

General Tips

  • Be aware of the remaining time you have for each item of the test. If you are completing the assessment test online, there will usually be a digital timer. If you take the test at an assessment centre, a supervisor can provide you with the time.
  • Don’t waste time being stuck on the same question. Try again later if you have time left at the end of the test.
  • Before making the actual test go through complex practice exercises that test your Deductive Reasoning and deductive logic skills and go over the questions you got wrong. This method will prime your mind to efficiently find the right solution smoothly. 
  • When using pen and paper, try to write down your thoughts in a concise way. Learn to use abbreviations for people, objects, and items (Samantha=Sam, Rattlesnake=RS, Binocolours= Bin). This technique will decrease the chance that you are rushed for time when nearing the end of the assessment test.

 

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Our All-Test Package has been developed by our dedicated team of psychologists who have the tenure and expertise required to provide you with a variety of deductive logic-inducing exercises which you will need to practice to pass your assessment test. We have over 250 Syllogism Questions and many more other Deductive Reasoning type questions! Our mission is to help candidates complete their applications fully prepared to maximize their potential. Our goal is to help you ace your assessment test, regardless of the company, job role, or level, you are applying for!

 

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